About Pakistan

History

Pakistan traces its history back to at least 2,500 years before Christ, when a highly developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley area. Excavations at Harappa, Moenjodaro and Kot Diji have brought to light evidence of an advanced civilization existing even in most ancient times.

Around 1,500 B.C. the Aryans overwhelmed this region, by and by, influenced the Hindu civilization, whose centre moved to the Ganges valley, further east. Later, the Persians occupied the northern regions in the 5th century B.C. up to the 2nd century A.D. The Greeks came in 327 B.C., under Alexander of Macedonia, and passed away like a meteor. In 712 A.D. the Arabs, led by Mohammad Bin Qasim, landed somewhere near modern Karachi, and ruled the lower half of Pakistan for two hundred years. During this time Islam took roots in the soil and influenced the life, culture and traditions of the people.

In the 10th century A.D., began the systematic conquest of Indo-Pakistan by the Muslims from Central Asia who ruled almost the whole sub-continent up to the 18th century A.D., when the British became masters of the land and ruled for nearly 200 years - for only 100 years over what is Pakistan now. The Muslim revival began towards the end of the last century when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a renowned Muslim leader and educationist, launched a movement for intellectual renaissance of the Indian Muslims. In 1930, the well-known poet-philosopher, Dr. Mohammad Iqbal conceived the idea of a separate state for the Muslims of the sub-continent. In 1940, a resolution was adopted by the All-India Muslim League demanding a separate independent homeland for the Muslims of India.

After seven years of untiring struggle under the brilliant leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Pakistan emerged on the map of the world as a sovereign state on 14th August, 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two independent states - India and Pakistan.

Pakistan Flag

The national flag of Pakistan was designed by Syed Amir-uddin Kedwaii and was based on the original flag of the Muslim League. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on August 11, 1947, just days before independence. The flag is referred to in the national anthem as Parcham-e-Sitāra-o-Hilāl in Urdu (lit. Flag of the Crescent and Star).

The flag comprises a dark green field, representing the Muslim majority of Pakistan, with a vertical white stripe in the hoist, representing religious minorities. In the centre is a white crescent moon and a white five-pointed star, which symbolize progress and light respectively. The flag symbolizes Pakistan's commitment to Islam, the Islamic world, and the rights of religious minorities.

The flag is flown on several important days of the year including Republic Day and Independence Day.

The flag was approved by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of the nation. It is associated with the flag used by the All-India Muslim League as an emblem of its aim of achieving an independent Muslim state. Their flag was green, with a central white star and crescent. At independence in 1947, a white stripe was added at the hoist to represent the state's minorities. The green and white together stand for peace and prosperity. The crescent symbolizes progress, and the star represents light and knowledge.

Pakistan Flag Design

The official design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly together with a definition of the features and proportions.

The College has the privilege of providing a forum for exchange of ideas between experience and youth, between wisdom and enthusiasm and between success and aspirations. It has been highly successful in catalyzing lively interaction among the participations mostly from the developing countries and faculty members, primarily from advanced countries.

Draw the diagonal from the top right hand corner to the bottom left corner of the green portion. On this diagonal establish two points 'A' and 'B'. Point 'A' at a distance equidistant from top right and bottom left hand corners of the green portion, i.e. the centre of the green portion. Point 'B' at a distance from the top right hand corner equal to 13/20th the width of the flag. With centre point 'A' and radius 1.1/4th the width of the flag describe a second arc. The enclosures made by these two arcs form the crescent. The dimensions of the five-pointed white heraldic star are determined by drawing a circle 1/10th the width of the flag. The circle surrounds the five points of the heraldic star. The star lies with one point on the diagonal at a point where the larger arc of the crescent, if completed, cuts the diagonal.

Location

Pakistan is situated between latitude 24 and 35 degrees North and longitude 62 and 75 degrees East. The country borders Iran on the West, India in the East, Afghanistan in the North and North-West and China in the North-West to North-East.



Population

Total Population 176,242,949 (July 2009 est.)
Growth Rate 1.947% (2009 est.)
Population in major cities
Faisalabad 2,793,721
Gujranwala 1,526,168
Hyderabad 1,536,398
Islamabad 673,766
Karachi 12,827,927
Lahore 6,936,563
Multan 1,566,932
Peshawar 1,390,874
Quetta 859,973

Area

Total area of Pakistan is 877,406 Sq. km. (including A. J Kashmir, FATA and FANA).

Climate

Pakistan has well defined seasons; Winter (December - February), Spring (March - April), Summer (May - September) and Autumn (October - November). During summer in plains, the temperature may go as high as 45oC. Between July and August, the monsoon brings an average 38 to 51 cms. of rain to plains and 152 to 203 cms. in lower Himalayan valleys of Murree, Kaghan, Swat and Azad Kashmir.

Religion

Religion
Population
Muslims 97% - 166,758,000
Hindus 1.5% - 3,200,000
Christians 1% - 2,800,000
Buddhists 20,000
Sikhs 20,000
Zoroastrian/Parsis 2,000
Other minorities Unknown

Languages

National Language: Urdu

Official Language: English

Language
Spoken by
Punjabi 44%
Sindhi 14%
Balochi 4%
Pushto 15%
Saraiki 10%
Urdu 8%

Government

Pakistan is an Islamic Republic and its capital is Islamabad. Pakistan has four provinces; Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Punjab and Sindh. Their respective capitals are: Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi. In addition to provinces, are the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) which are divided into districts of Diamer, Ghanche, Ghizer, Gilgit and Skardu. There are also 07 Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).

Pakistan has a federal structure. Parliament consists of the Lower House (National Assembly) and the Upper House (Senate). Members of the National Assembly are directly elected on adult franchise basis and their term of office is 05 years. The National Assembly determines the major policy issues and passes annual budget and legislation. It elects the Prime Minister from among its members. The Prime Minister forms his/her cabinet from among members of the Assembly and the Senate. Provinces have their own elected legislative assemblies and Chief Ministers. Majority of the members of the Upper House are elected by the Provincial Assemblies.

Currency

Basic unit of currency is Rupee which divides into 100 Paisas. Currency notes of 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Rupees are in use. Coins of 1, 2, 5 Rupees are in circulation.

Weight & Measures

Currency
One lakh One hundred thousand 100,000
Ten lakh One million 1,000,000
One crore Ten million 10,000,000
One billion One thousand million --
One trillion One thousand billion --

Weights
One seer 2,057 lbs. 0.9331 kg
One maund 82,286 lbas. 37,324 kg
One CWT (hundred weights) 112 lbs. 50.8011 kg
One long ton 2240 lbs. 1.016 metric tons
One cotton bale 375 lbs. 170.2 kg
One bushel 0.73 mds. 27.25 kg

Area
One Acre 4840 sq. yards 0.4047 hectare
One cubic metre 35.315 cubic feet --

Length
One yard 36 inches 0.914 meter
One mile 1760 yards 1.709 km

Liquid Measures
One imperial gallon 4.561 litres 1.20094 American gallons
One American barrel 34.9726 imperial gallons 42 American gallons
One ton of liquified methane 50,000 cubic feet of natural gas appl 16 barrels
One tonne of oil 7.454 barrels --

Electricity

Electricity Used in Pakistan is 220 V, 50 Hz AC.

Time Zone

Time difference: (UTC+5) Pakistan Standard Time is GMT plus 5 hours. It gets dark at about 5 p.m. in winter and at 7.30 p.m. in summer.

Daylight Saving Time: +1hr, in 2009 - begins third Wednesday in April; ends first Sunday in November; note - a new policy of daylight saving time was initiated by the government in 2008; the specific date of the start of DST has varied over the last two years.

Driving

All traffic in Pakistan runs on the left side. International or own national license is valid. All cars must be insured and registered. Minimum age 18 years. Speed limit varies on most roads from 65 km per hour to 120 km per hour on the Motorway.

Insurance

Tourists are advised to take insurance against accident, thefts etc. from the country of origin. There are many insurance companies in Pakistan’s major cities who also offer such services.

Car Rental

Private Cars for hire (with driver) are available from rent-a-car companies and Tourist Information Centre. Cars without drivers are difficult to hire (need a personal or cash guarantee). Highways link main cities and Pakistan with China, India, Afghanistan and Iran. Minimum 10% to 20% of the total bill is accepted.

Telephone

Pakistan Country Code -- 92
City
Code
City
Code
Faisalabad 41 Islamabad 51
Hyderabad 221 Rawalpindi 51
Karachi 21 Lahore 42
Multan 61 Gilgit 572
Peshawar 91 Sakardu 575

outward via operator or from ISD Public Call Office (PCO). For internal calls, Card Phone booths are installed at main business streets in most cities and towns. Public telephone, telex and fax facilities are available at the Customers Service Centres (CSC) or in general stores and shops, identified by a sign displaying ‘PCO’ on green board/lettering.

Drinking Water

Tap water is un-safe to drink. Mineral water is available at major towns and most tourist attractions. Travelers may use water-purification tablets to drink normal water.

Business Hours

Banks:
Monday to Thursday - 09:00 - 17:00
Friday and Saturday - 09:00 - 12:30

Govt. Office:
Monday to Saturday - 08:00 - 15:00
Friday - 08:00 - 12:00

Private Business:
Monday to Thursday and Satreday - 09:00 - 17:00
Friday - 09:00 - 17:00 (with one hour break from 14:00 - 15:00)

Sunday is the weekly holiday. Shorter hours during Ramadan (fasting month) are observed throughout Pakistan.



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